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Priories and aristocratic manorial households created considerable demand for goods and services - both luxuries and necessities and also afforded some protection to merchants and traders. These centres of trade attracted sellers which would stimulate the growth of the town.
The Domesday Book of lists 50 markets in England, however, many historians believe this figure underestimates the actual number of markets in operation at the time.
In England, some 2, new markets were established between and From the 12th century, English monarchs awarded a charter to local Lords to create markets and fairs for a town or village. A charter protected the town's trading privileges in return for an annual fee. Once a chartered market was granted for specific market days, a nearby rival market could not open on the same days. As the number of markets increased, market towns situated themselves sufficiently far apart so as to avoid competition, but close enough to permit local producers a round trip within one day about 10 km.
A pattern of market trading using mobile stalls under covered arcades was probably established in Italy with the open loggias of Mercato Nuovo designed and constructed by Giovanni Battista del Tasso and funded by the Medici family ; Mercato Vecchio, Florence designed by Giorgio Vasari and Loggia del Grano by architect, Giulio Parigi. Braudel and Reynold have made a systematic study of European market towns between the thirteenth and fifteenth century.
Their investigation shows that in regional districts markets were held once or twice a week while daily markets were common in larger cities. Over time, permanent shops began opening daily and gradually supplanted the periodic markets, while peddlers or itinerant sellers continued to fill in any gaps in distribution.
During the Middle Ages, the physical market was characterised by transactional exchange. Shops had higher overhead costs, but were able to offer regular trading hours and a relationship with customers and may have offered added value services, such as credit terms to reliable customers.
The economy was primarily characterised by local trading in which goods were traded across relatively short distances. Beach markets, which were known in north-western Europe, during the Viking period, were primarily associated with the sale of fish. The historian, Braudel, reports that, in , grain moved just 5—10 miles; cattle 40—70 miles; wool and wollen cloth 20—40 miles. However, following the European age of discovery, goods were imported from afar - calico cloth from India, porcelain, silk and tea from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar, rum and coffee from the New World.
Across the boroughs of England, a network of chartered markets sprang up between the 12th and 16th centuries, giving consumers reasonable choice in the markets they preferred to patronise. Purchase decisions were based on purchase criteria such as the consumer's perceptions of the range, quality, and price of goods. Such considerations informed decisions about where to make purchases and which markets to patronise.
As the number of charters granted increased, competition between market towns also increased. In response to competitive pressures, towns invested in developing a reputation for quality produce, efficient market regulation and good amenities for visitors such as covered accommodation. By the thirteenth century, counties with important textile industries were investing in purpose built halls for the sale of cloth.
London's Blackwell Hall became a centre for cloth, Bristol became associated with a particular type of cloth known as Bristol red , Stroud was known for producing fine woollen cloth, the town of Worsted became synonymous with a type of yarn; Banbury and Essex were strongly associated with cheeses. In the market economy, goods are ungraded and unbranded, so that consumers have relatively few opportunities to evaluate quality prior to consumption.
In medieval society, regulations for such matters appeared initially at the local level. The Charter of Worcester, written between and provided for fines for dishonest trading, amongst other things. This document outlines the Assizes for 16 different trades, most of which were associated with markets - miller, baker, fisher, brewer, inn-keeper, tallow-chandler, weaver, cordwainer etc.
For each trade, regulations covered such issues as fraud, prices, quality, weights and measures and so on. The assize was a formal codification of prior informal codes which had been practised for many years. The courts of assize were granted the power to enforce these regulations. The process of standardizing quality, prices and measures assisted markets to gain the confidence of buyers and made them more attractive to the public.
In this way, markets helped to provide an early form of product branding. Today, traders and showmen jealously guard the reputation of these historic chartered markets. An 18th century commentator, Daniel Defoe visited Sturbridge fair in and wrote a lengthy description which paints a picture of a highly organised, vibrant operation which attracted large number of visitors from some distance away. In the Asia Minor, prior to the 10th century, market places were situated on the perimeter of the city.
Along established trade routes, markets were most often associated with the caravanserai typically situated just outside the city walls. However, when the marketplace began to become integrated into city structures, it was transformed into a covered area where traders could buy and sell with some protection from the elements.
Markets at Mecca and Medina were known to be significant trade centres in the 3rd century CE and the nomadic communities were highly dependent on them for both trade and social interactions. Dating the emergence of marketplaces in China is difficult. Qi's Prime Minister, the great reformer, Guan Zhong , divided the capital into 21 districts xiang of which three were dedicated to farmers, three to hand-workers and three to businessmen, who were instructed to settle near the markets.
For instance, the market at Yong, the capital of the Qi state, measured 3, square metres and was an outdoor market. According to the Rites of Zhou , markets were highly organized and served different groups at different times of day; merchants at the morning market, every day people at the afternoon market and peddlers at the evening market. During the Qin empire and the Han dynasty which followed it, markets were enclosed with walls and gates and strictly separated from residential areas.
Over time, specialised markets began to emerge. In Luoyang, during the Tang Dynasty, a metal market was known. Outside the city walls were sheep and horse markets. He was also impressed by the size of markets. According to his account, the ten markets of Hangzhou , primarily a fish market, attracted 40, to 50, patrons on each of its three trading days each week. In China, negative attitudes towards mercantile activity developed; merchants were the lowest class of society.
In , an edict prohibited those of rank five or higher from entering markets. One anecdote from the time of Empress Wu relates the tale of a fourth rank official who missed out on the opportunity for promotion after he was seen purchasing a steamed pancake from a market. In Mesoamerica, a tiered system of traders developed independently. Extensive trade networks predated the Aztec empire by at least hundreds of years. The system supported various levels of pochteca - from very high status through to minor traders who acted as a type of peddler to fill in gaps in the distribution system.
The Mexica Aztec market of Tlatelolco was the largest in all the Americas and said to be superior to those in Europe. There are many different ways to classify markets. One way is to consider the nature of the buyer and the market's place within the distribution system. This leads to two broad classes of market, namely retail market or wholesale markets. The economist, Alfred Marshall classified markets according to time period.
In this classification, there are three types of market; the very short period market where the supply of a commodity remains fixed. Perishables, such as fruit, vegetables, meat and fish fall into this group since goods must be sold within a few days and the quantity supplied is relatively inelastic.
The second group is the short period market where the time in which the quantity supplied can be increased by improving the scale of production adding labor and other inputs but not by adding capital.
Many non-perishable goods fall into this category. The third category is the long-period market where the length of time can be improved by capital investment. Other ways to classify markets include its trading area local, national or international ; its physical format or its produce. Markets may feature a range of merchandise for sale, or they may be one of many specialist markets, such as:.
Bazaar : Grand Bazaar, Istanbul , Turkey. Floating market : Damnoen Saduak floating market in Ratchaburi , Thailand , is a famous tourist attraction.
Night market : Shilin Night Market , Taiwan. Wet market in Hong Kong. Flea market in Germany. Markets generally have featured prominently in artworks, especially amongst the Dutch painters of Antwerp from the middle of the 16th century. Pieter Aertsen was known as the "great painter of the market. The public began to distinguish between two types of merchant, the meerseniers which referred to local merchants including bakers, grocers, sellers of dairy products and stall-holders, and the koopman ' , which described a new, emergent class of trader who dealt in goods or credit on a large scale.
With the rise of a European merchant class, this distinction was necessary to separate the daily trade that the general population understood from the rising ranks of traders who operated on a world stage and were seen as quite distant from everyday experience.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, as Europeans conquered parts of North Africa and the Levant, European artists began to visit the Orient and painted scenes of everyday life. Europeans sharply divided peoples into two broad groups - the European West and the East or Orient ; us and the other.
Europeans often saw Orientals as the photographic negative of Western civilisation; the peoples could be threatening- they were "despotic, static and irrational whereas Europe was viewed as democratic, dynamic and rational. This fascination with the other gave rise to a genre of painting known as Orientalism.
Artists focussed on the exotic beauty of the land - the markets and bazaars, caravans and snake charmers. Islamic architecture also became favourite subject matter, and the high vaulted market places features in numerous paintings and sketches. Individual markets have also attracted literary attention.
Les Halles, a complex of market pavilions in Paris, features extensively in both literature and painting.
Giuseppe Canella - painted Les Halles et la rue de la Tonnellerie. Markets have been known in parts of Africa for centuries. An 18th century commentator noted the many markets he visited in West Africa.
He provided a detailed description of market activities at Sabi, in the Wydah , now the part of the Republic of Benin :. In the Kingdom of Benin modern Benin City , he commented on the exotic foods available for sale at a market there:.
The sale of agricultural produce to the formal market is largely controlled by large corporations. Most small, local farmers sell their produce to the informal market, local communities and street vendors. The government made some attempts to build markets in the north of the country, but that was largely unsuccessful and most commercial buyers travel to Johannesburg or Tshwane for supplies.
Ethiopia is a major producer and exporter of grains and a number of wholesale markets assist with the distribution and export of such products. Ghanaian markets have survived in spite of sometimes brutal measures to eradicate them.
In the late s, the Ghanaian government used market traders as a scapegoat for its own policy failures which involved food shortages and high inflation. The government blamed traders for failing to observe pricing guidelines and vilified "women merchants". In , the Makola market was dynamited and bulldozed, but within a week the traders were back selling fruit, vegetables and fish, albeit without a roof over their head.
Kenya 's capital, Nairobi , has several major markets. Wakulima market is one of the region's largest markets, situated on Haile Selassie Avenue in Nairobi. Other markets in Nairobi are: Kariakor Market Gikomba Market and Muthurwa market  In Mombasa, Kongowea market is also a very large market with over stalls and covering 4.
In Morocco , markets are known as souks , and are normally found in a city's Medina old city or old quarter. Shopping at a produce market is a standard feature of daily life in Morocco.
In Tangiers , a sprawling market fills the many streets of the medina and this area is divided into two sections, known as the Grand Socco and the Petit Socco. The term 'socco' is a Spanish corruption of the Arabic word for souk , meaning marketplace. The Medina at Fez is the oldest, having been founded in the 9th century.
Today it is the main fresh produce market and is noted for its narrow laneways and for a total ban on motorized traffic.
All produce is brought in and out of the marketplace by donkey or hand-cart. In Marrakesh , the main produce markets are also to be found in the Medina and a colourful market is also held daily in the Jemaa el-Fnaa main square where roaming performers and musicians entertain the large crowds that gather there.
Marrakesh has the largest traditional Berber market in Morocco. Namibia has been almost entirely dependent on South Africa for its fresh produce. Dominated by rolling plains and long sand dunes and an unpredictable rainfall, many parts of Namibia are unsuited to growing fruit and vegetables.
Government sponsored initiatives have encouraged producers to grow fresh fruit, vegetables, legumes and grains  The Namibian Ministry of Agriculture has recently launched a system of fresh produce hubs to serve as a platform for producers to market and distribute their produce. It is anticipated that these hubs will assist in curbing the number of sellers who take their produce to South Africa where it is placed on cold storage, only to be imported back into the country at a later date.
Fresh produce markets have traditionally dominated the South African food chain, handling more than half of all fresh produce. Although large, vertically integrated food retailers, such as supermarkets, are beginning to make inroads into the supply chain, traditional hawkers and produce markets have shown remarkable resilience.
The "Gambia is Good" initiative was established in with a view to encouraging a market for locally grown fresh produce rather than imported ones. The plan was designed to "stimulate local livelihoods, inspire entrepreneurship and reduce the environmental and social cost of imported produce.
A great deal of the produce trade is carried out informally on street corners and many shops are little more than market booths. Notable markets include: the Serekunda Market in Gambia's largest city, Serekunda , which opens from early morning to late at night 7 days a week and trades in produce, live animals, clothing, accessories, jewellery, crafts, second hand goods and souvenirs; The Albert Market in the capital, Banjul which sells fresh produce, colourful, locally designed fabrics, musical instruments, carved wooden masks and other local products.
Other interesting markets include: Bakau Fish Market in Bakau ; Tanji Fish Market, Tanji, where brightly painted fishing boats bring in the fish from where it is immediately preserved using traditional methods and prepared for distribution to other West African countries; The Woodcarvers Market in Brikama which boasts the largest concentration of woodcarvers in the country; the Pottery Market in Basse Santa ; the Atlantic Road Craft Market at Bakau and the Senegambia Craft Market at Bakau.
Produce markets in Asia are undergoing major changes as supermarkets enter the retail scene and the growing middle classes acquire preferences for branded goods.
Many supermarkets purchase directly from producers, supplanting the traditional role of both wholesale and retail markets. In order to survive, produce markets have been forced to consider value adding opportunities and many retail markets now focus on ready-to-eat food and take-away food.
In China , the existence of street and wet markets has been known for centuries, however, many of these were restricted in the s and 60s and only permitted to re-open in To assist in the distribution of food, more than 9, wholesale produce markets operate in China. For example, Beijing's Xinfadi Wholesale market , currently under renovation, is expected to have a footprint of hectares when complete.
China is both a major importer and exporter of fruit and vegetables and is now the world's largest exporter of apples. China's fresh produce market is undergoing major change.
In the larger cities, purchasing is gradually moving to online with door-to-door deliveries. Hong Kong relies heavily imports to meet its fresh produce needs.
Importers are consequently an important part of the distribution network, and some importers supply directly to retail consumers. Stalls opened at two sides of a street are required to have licenses issued by the Hong Kong Government. The various types of street markets include fresh foods, clothing, cooked foods, flowers and electronics. The earliest form of market was a Gaa si wet market. Some traditional markets have been replaced by shopping centres , markets in municipal service buildings and supermarkets , while others have become tourist attractions such as Tung Choi Street and Apliu Street.
Although the majority of markets in South Korea are wholesale markets, retail customers are permitted to make purchases in all of them. The Gwangjang Market is the nation's top market and is a popular tourist destination. Taiwan meets most of its produce needs through local production. This means that the country has a very active network of wholesale and retail markets. In South Asia, especially Nepal, India and Bangladesh, a Haat also known as hat refers to a regular rural produce market, typically held once or twice per week.
The marketing historian, Petty, has suggested that Indian marketplaces first arose during the Chola Dynasty approx. Distinct types of markets were evident; Nagaaram streets of shops, often devoted to specific types of goods; Angadi markets and Perangadi large markets in the inner city districts. The sub-continent may have borrowed the concept of covered marketplaces from the Middle East around the tenth century with the arrival of Islam. The caravanserai and covered market structures, known as suqs, first began to appear along the silk routes and were located in the area just outside the city perimeter.
Following the tradition established on the Arabian peninsula, India also established temporary-seasonal markets in regional districts. In Rajasthan's Pushkar , an annual camel market was first recorded in the 15th century. However, following the foundation of the Mughal Empire in northern India during the 16th century, this arrangement changed. A covered bazaar or market place became integrated into city structures and was to be found in the city centre.
Some of these bazaars appear to have specialised in particular types of produce. The Patna district, in the 17th century, was home to weaver villages and the Patna Bazaar enjoyed a reputation as a centre of trade in fine cloth. When the Italian writer and traveller, Niccolao Manucci , visited there in , he found many merchants trading in cotton and silk in Patna's bazaars.
In India today, many different types of market serve retail and commercial clients: . In India and also Bangladesh and Pakistan , a landa bazaar is a type of a bazaar or a marketplace with lowest prices where only secondhand general goods are exchanged or sold. A haat also refers to a bazaar or market in Bangladesh and Pakistan and the term may also be used in India.
A saddar refers to the main, central market in a town while a mandi refers to a large marketplace. A Meena Bazaar is a marketplace where goods are sold in an effort to raise money for charity.
Southeast Asia is noted for its night markets, floating markets and pirate markets markets that specialise in selling "knock off" copies of designer brands.
Some Asian countries have developed unique distribution systems and highly specialised types of market place. Throughout Asia, a wet market refers to a place where fruit, vegetables, fish, seafood and meat products are sold.
In Indonesia , a Pasar pagi is a particular type of wet market, also known as a "morning market" which typically operates from early morning to the afternoon. The types of goods being sold is also quite different. Pasar pagi is where many housewives, domestic help, and local folks appear to shop their daily needs, mostly fresh produce. The things which are on sale are usually fresh produce, including fruits , vegetables , spices , fish, meat, eggs, and a variety of perishable products.
Notable markets specializing in traditional batik clothing are, Pasar Klewer in Solo and Pasar Beringharjo in Yogyakarta. Pasar Minggu specialized on fruits and vegetables, while Pasar Kue Subuh in Senen specialized on selling kue , as they offer a rich variety of traditional Indonesian snack, open every subuh dawn. In several cities and towns in Kalimantan and Sumatra , there are floating markets , which is a collection of vendors selling various produce and product on boats.
Pasar Keputran, a pasar pagi or morning wet market, Surabaya. Vendor selling rissole at the pasar malam night market in Rawasari, Jakarta. In Malaysia the term Pasar malam refers to a night market which operates from around through to approximately In parts of Malaysia, jungle produce markets trade in indigenous fruits and vegetables, all of which are gaining popularity as consumers switch to pesticide-free food products.
Some of the more nutritional indigenous produce includes fruits such as dabai Canarium odontophyllum , kembayau Dacryodes rostrata f. In the Philippines , the word palengke refers to a group of stalls under a covered roof. Locals use palengkes for daily shopping. Public markets are the primary trading centres in cities. In rural districts, public markets are in a state of disrepair.
In addition, a number of farmers' markets have sprung up. A Palengke , Danao City Philippines. Bangkok 's markets are popular with both locals and visitors. Floating markets can be found in Bangkok and elsewhere.
Vendors not only sell fresh produce from boats, but will also cook meals and snacks on their vessels for sale to the public. These floating markets are a popular tourist attraction. In the West Asia, markets are known as bazaars or souks. The earliest bazaars are believed to have originated in Persia, and spread to the rest of the Middle East and Europe from there.
Documentary sources suggest that zoning policies confined trading to particular parts of a city from around 3, BCE, creating the conditions necessary for the emergence of a bazaar. In the ancient cities of Iran, three types of bazaar have been identified; periodic bazaars, urban bazaars and local bazaars. Periodic bazaars could be organised anywhere and typically took place in open spaces and traded in specialities such as handicrafts, clothing, livestock and foodstuffs.
These took place at regular intervals such as monthly or yearly. Urban bazaars were held in covered public walkways with shops or stores on both sides. Its architecture varied according to local conditions including climate, culture and the economic power of the city in which it was situated.
Urban bazaars were places for commercial, social and cultural interactions. Local bazaars , held in specific districts of larger cities, were similar to urban bazaars, but on a smaller scale with fewer shops.
In pre-Islamic Arabia, markets took on two forms, permanent urban markets and temporary, seasonal markets often located in regional districts. Gradually, markets or bazaars gradually became central features of urban towns and were relocated to the city centre.
Permanent markets are mentioned frequently in ancient literary sources. The Hebrew word for market is shuk plural: shvakim , and food markets are found in every major city. Street markets are called pazar in Turkish and usually named after the name of the day since they are only installed at around on that specific day and ended on same day around , in every week. Every district in Turkey has its own open market where people can choose and buy from a very wide range of products, from fresh fruits and vegetables to clothing, from traditional white cheese which some people may consider feta -like to household items.
Fruit and vegetable pavilion of Riga Central Market. With the rise of global trade in the 16th century, Antwerp became the largest market town in Europe. Paris was one of the first European cities to implement a system of formal, centralised and covered market places.
The French system of organised, designated central retail markets was extensively studied by architects in London with a view to emulating the system and ultimately eradicating the informal supply of produce via street vendors. At the market stall, painting by Louise Moillon , Street market, Rue Mouffetard. The majority of retail markets are operated by the public sector and administered by local governments. A small number are operated by private groups or individuals.
Traders can be licensed to trade on a single pitch but not at a national level or when trading on private land. This piecemeal licensing system has contributed to declining public confidence in the reputation of markets. It provides consumers with traceability of traders and goods as well as the ability to rate and contact the traders.
A MarketPASS is issued to an operator or trader, once they have provided proof of identity, insurance and, where required, a hygiene certificate. The data also shows that traditional outdoor street markets continue to dominate the market space, but are in decline. Some researchers make a distinction between traditional markets and gentrified markets. Achieving this requires, among other things, reduced raw material consumption and energy-optimized production.
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